What is the Food Security?
Global Food Security & Sustainable Development
what is the food security ?
According to the UN’s Committee on World Food Security, food security means that all people have physical, social, and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that fits their food preferences and dietary needs for an active and healthy life at all times.
Famine and food crises – The rationale for the food security
Famine is one of the consequences of a human population outnumbering available natural resources. Africa has seen famines in recent decades. Following a drought in the Sahel region in the mid-1970s, 500,000 Africans died of starvation, and millions more were permanently afflicted by malnutrition.
Starvation in African nations increased worldwide attention some 10 years later, in the 1980s.Africa’s famine has been caused by a number of interconnected factors. One, as suggested, is drought. Even though drought is not new to Africa, the sheer number of people afflicted by it is. Furthermore, deserts in Africa appear to be spreading, partly due to climate change but also due to human activity.
Deforestation may be contributing to the drying of the environment, as a result of poor farming methods. Furthermore, food restriction and destruction have been employed as a weapon in political upheavals on occasion. Malnutrition is now responsible for the deaths of over 6 million children each year. Malnutrition is particularly prevalent in low- and middle-income nations, as assessed by low weight for age. Africa’s famines highlight yet another important theme: people and nature.
People have an impact on the environment, and the environment has an impact on people. Agriculture has an impact on the environment, and agriculture has an impact on the environment. Human population expansion in Africa has strained the land’s ability to provide adequate food and jeopardized its future production.
The impending global food crisis in the first decade of the twenty-first century was driven by rising food costs, not by conflict or drought. The price of fundamental foods like rice, corn, and wheat has grown to the point where low- and middle-income countries are facing a significant dilemma.
Food riots erupted in a number of countries in 2007 and 2008, including Mexico, Haiti, Egypt, Yemen, Bangladesh, India, and Sudan. The increased cost of oil used in food production (fertilizer, transportation, working fields, etc.) has been implicated, as has the conversion of certain maize output to biofuels.
Another important subject in this situation is science and values. Increased agricultural production and a greater understanding of population expansion and what is required to maintain natural resources have resulted from scientific knowledge. With this knowledge, we are obliged to make a decision: which is more important: the survival of today’s people or the conservation of the ecosystem, which depends on future food production and human life? Answering this question necessitates value judgments as well as the facts and knowledge necessary to make them.
For example, we must assess if we can continue to grow agricultural productivity without damaging the ecosystem that agriculture and, indeed, life on Earth rely on. Technical, scientific research, to put it another way, provides a foundation for a value assessment. The human population continues to rise, but the consequences of humans on the environment are increasing at an even quicker rate. The laws of population growth are unavoidable.
Concept of Food Security
Food security refers to the availability of enough nutritious food on a daily basis for everyone in the globe and in a given area to live an active and healthy life. The concept of food security arises from the notion that food demand will increase as populations increase and their consumption patterns change. Approximately 1.3 billion people will be added to the human family in the remaining years of this century.
However, rising earnings may contribute for 30 to 40% of the rise in food consumption in developing countries and roughly 10% in developed countries. As a result, the global food system must be managed to raise food production by 3 to 4% each year over the next few decades. Agricultural policy in almost every country has centered on increasing output.
Despite this, it has proved far more difficult to raise world agricultural output by a consistent 3 percent a year in the mid-1980s than it was in the mid-1950s. Furthermore, as deserts advance and pressure on forests grow, production records have been offset by the appearance. Many people in developing nations have health problems as a result of chronic hunger and poor nutrition, while many people in rich countries have health problems as a result of eating too much food. Poverty, political turmoil, corruption, conflict, and the detrimental environmental effects of food production are the most significant barriers to supplying adequate food for everyone.
Concept of Food Insecurity Opposite Side of View
People who are food insecure suffer from chronic hunger and poor nutrition, which jeopardizes their ability to live healthy and productive lives. The root cause of food insecurity is poverty, e.g., India has produced enough food since 1990 but still one -fifth of the population faces food insecurity due to the inability to afford food. Other obstacles to food security are
- Political upheaval
- Land degradation
The nature of food insecurity can be broadly placed in two categories;
- Under-nutrition/chronic under-nutrition/hunger in which people do not get enough food to satisfy their basic energy needs.
- Malnutrition/Chronic malnutrition in which food consumed lacks essential food ingredients, e.g., low protein food, high carbohydrates food.
According to FAO report, the number of people facing under-nutrition and malnutrition fell from 918 million in 1970 to 862 million in 2006. But this figure can again rise up to 1.2 billion by the end of 2015. A most severe form of food insecurity is famine which occurs when there is a severe shortage of food in an area accompanied by mass starvation, many deaths, economic chaos, and social disruption.
Methods to improve Food security
- Immunization of children against diseases like measles
- Let the market decide the flow
- Control food price and give food subsidies
- Family planning
- Reduce poverty
- Preventing dehydration of children
- Educating women
- Encourage breastfeeding
Strategies for Sustainable Food Security
Following strategies were recommended by the report ‘Our Common Future’ for sustainable food security:
- Government Intervention in providing Food
- Efficient Management, Use and Preservation of following Food Resource Bases
- Proper land use
- Water management systems
- Alternatives to Chemicals
- Forestry and Agriculture
Managing Productivity and yields through:
- Improved technological base
- Human resources management
- Increased productivity of inputs
- Land Reforms
- Subsistence farming techniques
- Integrated rural development
- Control on food availability fluctuations