Petroleum (Crude Mineral Oil)

Petroleum (Crude mineral Oil)

Petroleum (Crude mineral Oil)  is the flammable liquid consists of a mixture of hydrocarbons mainly alkanes, cycloalkanes and various aromatic hydrocarbons of natural origin and contains impurities, such as compounds containing sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, and trace amounts of metals. 

Under normal surface pressure and temperatures, crude mineral oil exists in the liquid state; however, its physical characteristics such as density, viscosity, etc. are highly variable. Lighter mineral oils are composed of as much as 97% hydrocarbons. However heavier oils contain up to 50% of hydrocarbons by weight. A typical elemental composition by weight of crude oil is given in the table:

Element

Percent-Range

Carbon

83-87

Hydrogen

10-14

Nitrogen

0.1-2

Oxygen

0.1-1.5

Sulfur

0.5-6

Metals

<0.1

petroleum
petroleum

Queries & Answers Related to Petroleum

What is petroleum made of?

What exactly is petroleum?

What is petroleum used for?

Is petroleum the same as crude oil?

About 80% of the world’s reserves are located in the Middle East and worldwide known estimated fossil oil reserves are approximately 1.2 trillion barrels without oil sands and 3.74 trillion barrels with oil sands. Saudi Arabia, Russia, and the United States are the top oil-producing countries. First oil wells were drilled in China in 347 AD and Baghdad streets were paved with tar, derived from petroleum for the first time. In 1847, the Scottish chemist James Young distilled thicker oil suitable for lubricating machinery and a light thin oil suitable for use as lamp oil. By 1910, significant oil fields had been discovered in Venezuela, Persia, Dutch East Indies, Mexico, and Peru. Today, oil runs about 90% of transport. In the 19th century, paraffin was refined from crude oil.

Crude mineral oil or petroleum is used in several industries. It is refined a fractionated from gasoline, kerosene, asphalt, and chemical reagents used to man pharmaceuticals and plastics. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is a highly flammable mixture of butane (C4

H10) about 60% and propane (C3H8) about 38% by volume. LPG is used for heating purposes and vehicles. The energy contents of LPG are higher than for gasoline because of the higher hydrogen to carbon ratio. LPG emits 19% less CO than oil and 30% of that of coal.

Gasoline consists of mainly aliphatic hydrocarbons with carbon atoms between 4 and 12 per-molecule and is used as a fuel in internal combustion engines. The octane rating of gasoline is improved with iso-octane, toluene, and benzene. The boiling point of petroleum diesel varies in the range of 180-360oC (360-680°F) and has 8-21 carbon atoms per molecule. Kerosene is a clear, thin liquid formed containing 6 to 16 carbon atoms per molecule. Its auto-ignition temperature is 220°C (428°F) and flashpoint between 37 and 65°C (100 and 150oF).

Jet fuel is used in gas turbine engines used in air crafts. Commonly used naphtha-type jet fuel has a carbon number between about 5 and 15 and Kerosene-type jet fuel has a carbon number between about 8 and 16. Jet fuel oil is made of long hydrocarbon chains, particularly alkanes, cycloalkanes, and aromatics, and heavier than gasoline and naphtha. Heavy oils have higher viscosity and have to be heated to get them to flow.

Crude oil is recovered as a water-in-oil emulsion and demulsifies are used to isolate it from water. The crude oil extraction procedure includes three stages.

  • In the first stage, oil is derived in the pipeline by natural pressure.
  • In the second stage, liquids are injected into the crude oil well and pumps may be used.
  • In the third stage, heat is used to force out the remaining heavier oil.

Petroleum fulfills more than 40% of our total energy demands and more than 99%% of the transportation fuel is obtained from crude oil. Some crude oil fractions ‘are converted to fertilizers, pharmaceuticals, solvents, pesticides, and plastics. 

It is also used in roof coatings computer circuit boards, ink on newspapers, computer cases, paint, deodorant, floor covering shampoo, electrical insulation in buildings, cassette tapes, shower enclosures, dishwashing soap, shaving cream, fishing lures, soft contact lenses, hand lotion, toothpaste, tires, rope, antifreeze used in auto cooling systems, petroleum jelly, herbicides, insecticides, fungicides. solvent, trash bags, bandages, fan belts on engines, computer keyboards, and computer mouse.

However, crude oil causes many forms of environmental pollutions. It contains traces of sulfur and other impurities which are the main cause of acid rain. Its exhausts cause respiratory systems problems as it contains ozone (O3) which is a pollutant at ground level.

Leave a Comment