The period of the Industrial Revolution of England was from the 18th to the 19th century. This revolution marked the conversion of agrarian and rural societies into industrialized and urban societies.

The Industrial Revolution of England shifted home-based manufacturing to powered and special-purpose machinery, factories, and mass production. The iron and textile industry played a vital role in the Industrial Revolution of England. Increased demand for products resulted in demand for mechanization.

Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution of England

Monopoly in coal, iron ore, and colonial rule are the consequences of the Industrial Revolution of England.

Britain had a long history of producing textiles such as wool, linen, and cotton. Thanks in part to its moist environment, which was perfect for breeding sheep. Prior to the Industrial Revolution of England textile industry was a true “cottage industry”. It has individual spinners, weavers, and dyers working in small workshops or even their houses.

Innovations such as:

The flying shuttle,

Spinning jenny,

Water frame,

Power loom,

made weaving cloth and spinning yarn and thread easier starting in the mid-18th century as the industrial revolution of England. Cloth production grew more efficient, requiring less time and human effort.

Britain’s new textile mills could supply the expanding demand for fabric both at home and abroad, thanks to more efficient, mechanized production. The country’s many foreign colonies provided a captive market for its goods. Aside from textiles, the British iron sector developed new technologies as well after the England’s Industrial Revolution.

Smelting iron ore with coke (a substance generated by burning coal) instead of traditional charcoal was one of the most innovative new procedures. This technology was both less expensive and produced higher-quality material. Britain’s iron and steel industry to develop in response to demand generated by the Napoleonic Wars (1803-15). The subsequent growth of the railroad sector as a result of England’s Industrial Revolution

What Caused Industrial Revolution of England

Consider what your life would be like if you didn’t have any machines to assist you. Make a list of all the machines in your home and on your person; you might be surprised at how many you have.

Consider previous generations throughout their formative years. How did they get from one location to the next? What method did they use to communicate? What kind of foods did they consume?

Humans once contributed the majority of the energy in use, powered by the animals and plants they ate and the wood they burned, or aided by their domesticated animals. Windmills and waterwheels helped to supplement the energy supply, but there was little leftover. All life depended on the relatively constant flow of energy from the Sun to the Earth.

Everything altered around 1750 when the Industrial Revolution of England began. People discovered a new source of energy with an exceptional work capability.

That source was fossil fuels, which were generated underground from the remains of plants and animals from much earlier geologic ages – coal, oil, and natural gas, with coal leading the way.

When these fuels were scorched, they released energy that had been stored for hundreds of millions of years, initiating from the Sun. Huge trees form the Carboniferous epoch (345–280 million years ago) fell and were buried in water, preventing oxygen and bacteria from decaying them.

Instead, they were squashed into the dark, carbonic, ignitable rock by the weight of objects above them. Over a hundred million years ago, microscopic animal skeletons and plant materials that dropped to the bottom of seas or were buried in sediment created the majority of the Earth’s oil and gas.

The weight of water and earth compacted the organic materials. Due to geographic reasons and the varied ecosystems that existed long ago, coal, oil, and gas are not uniformly distributed on Earth, despite their relative abundance. Some regions have far more than others.

The England’s Industrial Revolution Inventions

Weaving & Spinning is The England’s Industrial Revolution Inventions

In the second half of the 18th century, the invention of the following clever machinery enabled mass production of high-quality cotton and woolen thread and yarn, assisting Great Britain in becoming the world’s top textile manufacturer.

The Spinning Jenny is The England’s Industrial Revolution Inventions

Around 1764, James Hargreaves, a poor illiterate spinner and weaver from Lancashire, England, devised a new type of spinning machine that could simultaneously draw thread from eight spindles instead of only one, as the old spinning wheel did. After his daughter Jenny inadvertently knocked over the family’s spinning wheel, the spindle continued to spin even while the machine lay on the floor, indicating to Hargreaves that a single wheel might turn multiple spindles at once. In 1770, he received a patent for the spinning jenny.

The Water Frame is England’s Industrial Revolution Inventions

The water frame was developed in 1769 by Richard Arkwright. It was propelled by a waterwheel and was the first fully automatic and continuously working spinning machine. It produced thread that was both stronger and more plentiful than the spinning jenny.

The water frame, unlike other machines, could not be installed in spinners’ homes due to its size and power supply. Instead, it necessitated a site in a huge structure beside a fast-moving stream. Arkwright and his companions-built dozens of these plants in Britain’s hilly regions. Following that, spinners, including juvenile employees, worked in ever-larger factories rather than at home.

The Spinning Mule is England’s Industrial Revolution Inventions

The spinning mule was devised around 1779 by Samuel Crompton. He combined aspects of the spinning jenny and the water frame to create it.

His machine was capable of generating both fine and coarse yarn, and it allowed a single operator to run over 1,000 spindles at the same time.

Crompton was unable to patent his invention due to a lack of funds. A group of manufacturers defrauded him out of his innovation by paying him far less than they had promised for the design. Hundreds of facilities in the British textile sector eventually used the spinning mule.

The Steam Engine is Industrial Revolution of England Inventions

The steam engine improved the productive capacity of companies and contributed to the vast expansion of national and international transportation networks. In the 19th century through its use in industry and as a power source in ships and railway locomotives.

Watt’s Steam Engine is The Industrial Revolution Inventions

17th century, early steam engines were employed to pump water out of mines in the UK.

In 1765, Scottish inventor James Watt improved the efficiency of steam pumping engines by adding a separate condenser.

In 1781, he built a machine that rotated a shaft rather than generated the up-and-down action of a pump. Watt’s engine became a key power source in paper mills, flour mills, cotton mills, iron mills, distilleries, canals, and waterworks.

The Steam Locomotive is Industrial Revolution of England Inventions

Richard Trevithick, a British engineer, is widely credited with inventing the steam railway locomotive (1803). A use of the steam engine that Watt had previously regarded as impossible. Trevithick also modified his engine to drive a barge and run a dredger by rotating paddle wheels.

Trevithick’s engine, which produced more power than Watt’s. Therefore, working at higher pressures, quickly displaced Watt’s inefficient design in industrial uses in Britain. The Active (later called the Locomotion), developed by English engineer George Stephenson. It was the first steam-powered locomotive to take paying passengers, making its maiden journey in 1825. Stephenson and his son constructed the Rocket, which reached a top speed of 36 miles (58 kilometers) per hour. So, for a new passenger railroad route between Liverpool and Manchester, which was finished in 1830.

Steamboats & Steamships is Industrial Revolution of England Inventions

In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, steamboats and other steamships were invented in France, UK and US. The North River Steamboat, created by American engineer Robert Fulton. It went up the Hudson River from NY City to Albany, NY, at a pace of around 5 miles (8 kilometers) per hour in 1807.

Over hundreds of miles of interior waterways in the eastern and central US, particularly the Mississippi River, larger steamboats eventually conveyed freight and passengers. 1819, The Savannah, an American sailing ship with an auxiliary steam-powered paddle, accomplished the first transoceanic voyage.

It travelled from Savannah, Georgia, to Liverpool in just over 27 days. Despite the fact that, its paddle only ran for 85 hours of the journey. At the end of 19th century, larger and faster steamships were routinely started transportation across the North Atlantic.

Harnessing Electricity is Industrial Revolution of England Inventions

Scientists in Europe and the US investigated the relationship between electricity and magnetism in the early nineteenth century. As a result, they quickly led to practical uses of electromagnetic phenomena.

Electric Generators & Electric Motors is Industrial Revolution of England Inventions

Michael Faraday, a British scientist, demonstrated experimentally in the 1820s and 1830s that passing an electric current through a coil of wire between two poles of a magnet causes the coil to turn, while turning a coil of wire between two poles of a magnet generates an electric current in the coil (electromagnetic induction).

The first became the foundation for the electric motor, which translates electrical energy into mechanical energy, while the second became the foundation for the electric generator, or dynamo, which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.

Although both motors and generators improved significantly in the mid-nineteenth century, their widespread use was contingent on the later discovery of other technologies, such as electrically propelled trains and electric lighting.

Tramways & Electric Railways is Industrial Revolution of England Inventions

In 1879, German engineer Werner von Siemens exhibited the first electric railway, which was designed for use in urban mass transit. Electric railways were running within and between numerous major cities in Europe and the United States by the early twentieth century. In 1890, the London Underground, the first electrified part of London’s underground system, went into service.

The Incandescent Lamp is Industrial Revolution of England Inventions

In 1878–79, Joseph Wilson Swan in England and Thomas Alva Edison in the United States separately produced a workable electric incandescent lamp, which generates continuous light by heating a filament in a vacuum with an electric current (or near vacuum).

Both innovators applied for patents, and their legal battles only ended in 1883 when they agreed to form a joint venture. Because he also devised the power lines and other equipment required for a workable lighting system, Edison has been awarded the most of the credit for the invention.

Electric incandescent lamps increasingly supplanted gas and kerosene lamps as the primary source of artificial light in urban areas over the next 50 years, but gas-lit street lamps remained in use in Britain until the mid-20th century.

The Telephone & The Telegraph is The Industrial Revolution Inventions

The electric telegraph and the electric telephone, two 19th-century inventions, made dependable instantaneous communication over long distances possible for the first time. Their impact on trade, diplomacy, military operations, journalism, and a variety of other facets of daily life was immediate and long-lasting.

The Telegraph is Industrial Revolution of England Inventions

In 1837, Britain and the United States developed the first practical electric telegraph systems practically simultaneously. When electric current went through connecting wires, needles on a mounting plate at a receiver pointed to specific characters or numbers in the gadget designed by British inventors William Fothergill Cooke and Charles Wheatstone.

Samuel F.B. Morse, an American artist and inventor, invented his own electric telegraph and, more notably, a universal code, now known as Morse Code, that could be used in any telegraphy system. The code, which consists of a series of symbolic dots, dashes, and spaces, was quickly adopted around the world (in a modified form to accommodate diacritics). In 1844, a demonstration telegraph line was completed between Washington, D.C., and Baltimore, Maryland. “What hath God wrought!” was the first message sent on it.

In 1851, the first telegraph wires were extended across the English Channel. In 1858, they were laid across the Atlantic Ocean. The extension of telegraphic connection in the United States, facilitated by the rise of private telegraph firms like Western Union, aided the maintenance of law and order in the Western territories and the regulation of train traffic.

Furthermore, it allowed national and international news to be transmitted via wire services such as the Associated Press. Guglielmo Marconi, an Italian physicist and inventor, established a wireless telegraphy (radiotelegraphy) technology in 1896, which had significant military uses in the twentieth century.

The Telephone is Industrial Revolution of England Inventions

Alexander Graham Bell, a Scottish-born American scientist, successfully demonstrated the telephone in 1876, which used an electric current to transfer sound, including the human voice. Two sets of metallic reeds (membranes) and electromagnetic coils made up Bell’s invention.

Sound waves produced near one membrane led it to vibrate at specific frequencies, causing similar currents in the electromagnetic coil attached to it, which then flowed to the other coil, causing the other membrane to oscillate at the same frequencies, replicating the original sound waves.

On March 10, 1876, between two rooms of Bell’s Boston laboratory, the first “telephone call” (successful electric transmission of intelligible human speech) occurred when Bell summoned his assistant, Thomas Watson, with the famous words “Mr. Watson—Come here—I want to see you,” which Bell transcribed in his notes as “Mr. Watson—Come here—I want to see you.”

The telephone began as a curiosity or a toy for the wealthy, but by the mid-twentieth century, it had evolved into a common home gadget, with billions in use around the world.

The Internal-Combustion Engine & The Automobile is The Industrial Revolution Inventions

The internal-combustion engine and, with it, the gasoline-powered automobile were among the most important inventions of the late Industrial Revolution. In Europe and the United States, the automobile replaced the horse and carriage, providing greater freedom of travel for ordinary people, facilitating commercial links between urban and rural areas influencing urban planning and the growth of large cities, and contributing to severe air pollution problems in urban areas.

The Internal-Combustion Engine is The Industrial Revolution Inventions

The internal-combustion engine generates work by burning a compressed combination of oxidizer (air) and fuel inside the engine, with the hot gaseous products of combustion pushing against moving surfaces such as a piston or rotor.

Belgian inventor Étienne Lenoir built the first commercially viable internal-combustion engine in 1859, which employed a mixture of coal gas and air.

It was initially inefficient and costly to operate, but German engineer Nikolaus Otto considerably improved it in 1878 by introducing the four-stroke cycle of induction-compression-firing-exhaust.

Gas-powered engines based on Otto’s invention quickly supplanted steam engines in small industrial applications because to their increased efficiency, durability, and ease of operation. In 1885, German engineer Gottlieb Daimler built the first gasoline-powered internal-combustion engine, which was also based on Otto’s four-stroke design.

Soon after, in the early 1890s, another German engineer, Rudolf Diesel, built an internal-combustion engine (the diesel engine) that was more efficient than the Otto engine and used heavy oil instead of gasoline. Locomotives, heavy machinery, and submarines were all powered by it.

The Automobile is The Industrial Revolution Inventions

The gasoline-powered engine was suitable for light vehicular movement due to its efficiency and light weight. In 1885, Daimler and Karl Benz built the first motorbike and car powered by an internal-combustion engine, respectively. A budding industry in continental Europe and the United States was producing increasingly sophisticated automobiles for largely wealthy clients by the 1890s.

Henry Ford, an American manufacturer, perfected assembly-line manufacturing methods. Less than 20 years later, allowing him to produce millions of automobiles (particularly the Model T) and light trucks each year. Because of his massive economies of scale, he was able to make automobile ownership accessible to middle-class Americans, a significant advance in the history of transportation.

Environmental Impacts of Industrial Revolution of England

“No other revolution has made such a great impact as industrial revolution has ever made” 

The Industrial Revolution of England had a great effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions across the world. Great Britain’s manual labor and animal-based economy changed machine-based manufacturing.

It started with the mechanization of textile industries followed by the development of iron-making techniques which led to the increasing use of coal.

With the Industrial Revolution of England, came series of environmental impacts. Air pollution, water pollution, thermal pollution, noise pollution, and degradation of forests and other ecosystems. An increase in carbon dioxide led to global warming due to the greenhouse effect.

Free Riders 

Industrialized countries have racked up ‘historical’ emissions in the atmosphere since the beginning of the industrial revolution. Very recently, developing countries are only adding to this carbon pool already created in the atmosphere. This resulted in ‘free riding’,

a situation in which the development of some individuals (the ‘free riders’) enjoy the benefit at the cost of others (including other species)

Change in the climate has significant implications for intra-generational and inter-generational equity. The growing threat of global warming and climate change has altered economic growth and environmental pollutants. The (IPCC) estimated that the average global temperature will rise between 1.1 and 6.4OC in the next 100 years (IPCC 2007).

Likewise, global trade and accompanying transportation has a significant impact on the environment. Past studies reveal the economic growth- environmental pollution nexus and the economic growth- energy consumption nexuses. Carbon dioxide emissions increased at a 2% yearly rate globally from 1971 to 2004. As a result, owing to large regional increases of 30% and 42% in CO2 emissions for commercial and residential structures.

Asia, like the rest of the world, has been affected by anthropogenic climate change. With the southward retreat of the summer monsoon wet zone. East China has experienced a dramatic change in summer climate since the early 1980s.

Climate Change

Climate Change is one of the major problems faced by the present and immediate next generation. If these two generations are not able to solve the problem then it would be too late.

Across the world, millions of people are already forced to cope with climate change. In the climate change scenario, developing countries suffer more than developed countries. Despite constant improvements in energy intensities, global energy use and supply are expected to continue to grow, especially as developing countries follow industrialization.

Urbanization and growing wealth in developing countries indicate a large increase in demand for energy services. In the next few decades, which means increased carbon emissions. How the world reacts to this problem will have a direct bearing on the poor and rich at different times.

Poor people are more vulnerable to climate change but all who are vulnerable are not poor. However, eradication of poverty is not the solution to climate change. According to recent findings of IPCC, increasing GHG emissions have been correlated with more energy usage. Especially during the past two decades which lead to the uplifting of human society especially in the developing world. 

United Nation’s Conference on Human Environment

Two Major Impacts of Industrial Revolution of England

The primary cause of environmental degradation is human disturbance. The Industrial Revolution of England mechanized the production and manufacturing of goods. Industrialization introduced the use of machinery and other heavy equipment. As a result, which in turn, use fuel as a source of energy, which deteriorated the environment.

The modern technological progress on which we are so proud is actually the root cause of environmental deterioration. Environmental changes are based on the factors like urbanization, population, and economic growth, increase in energy consumption, and agricultural intensification.

The degradation has adverse impacts on humans, plants, animals, and microorganisms.

To cope with the critical situation, we need to make the optimum use and management of resources, sustainable development, adoption of green concept, and above all community participation in all developmental activities.

The two more severe impacts of the Industrial Revolution of England are

  • Severe increase in pollution owing to increase the level of carbon emissions.
  • Population growth is the result of the industrial revolution.


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5 Comments

Murshid Saif · June 30, 2021 at 7:20 pm

Great Work 💯

Unknown · July 1, 2021 at 3:17 am

💯

Unknown · July 16, 2021 at 8:04 am

Helped alot👌

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