“Environmental Biotechnology is any process that employs living creatures or substances from those organisms to manufacture or modify a product, to improve plants or animals, or to generate microorganisms for specific uses,” according to the definition of biotechnology. It includes tools and procedures, as well as living species such as plants, animals, and microorganisms, as well as products derived from these organisms that may be unique and unusual.

Queries & Answers Related to Environmental Biotechnology

What is environmental biotechnology and its importance?

What are some examples of environmental biotechnology?

What does environmental biotechnology include?

What is the scope of environmental biotechnology?

Environmental Biotechnology

Environmental biotechnology is defined as “the creation, application, and regulation of biological systems for the remediation of contaminated environments (land, air, and water), as well as for environmentally friendly processes.” Environmental biotechnology is the application of biotechnology to solve environmental concerns. It focuses on pollution diagnostics, pollution prevention products, and bioremediation. Bio-chemical, bio-processes, and biotechnology engineering, genetic engineering, protein engineering, and metabolic engineering are some of the fields that help it.

Need of Environmental Biotechnology

It is necessary to:

  • Get rid of the harmful byproducts that our other technologies produce.
  • Differentiate between similar species and make sure they aren’t on the verge of extinction.

Create new sources of energy (i.e., Biofuel).

Scope and Application (Environmental Biotechnology Companies)

There are numerous biotechnology applications.

  1. Biological processes are used in manufacturing.
  2. Agriculture
  3. Food Preparation
  4. Medicine
  5. Environmental safeguards
  6. Conservation of natural resources

This new wave of technological advancements has improved medicine, vitamin, and steroid synthesis, as well as energy generation.

environmental biotechnology
environmental biotechnology

Environmental Biotechnology Principles and Applications

Applications and Uses in Environmental Biotechnology Companies

It can be used for the following purposes:

  1. Treatment of solid waste and wastewater has improved.
  2. Cleaning up contamination and phytoremediation are examples of bioremediation.
  3. Bio-monitoring is used to ensure the environment’s health.
  4. Production that is cleaner: manufacturing that produces less pollution or uses less raw materials.
  5. Biomass-based energy
  6. Environmental protection and management using genetic engineering
  7. Biotechnology for environmental protection is a driving force behind integrated environmental protection.
  8. Bioremediation of the environment
  9. Minimization of waste

Scope of Environmental Biotechnology

Decontamination of environmental components is a common use.

  • Chemicals are made with it.
  • Biosensors are made with this material.
  • Pollution protection and waste minimization are two applications for this product.

Issues regarding Environmental Biotechnology

It is concerned with using biotechnology as an emerging technology to protect the environment, as increasing industrialization and other advances have resulted in a threatened clean environment and depleted natural resources.

Current Research Topics

The following are some current areas of environmental biotechnology research:

Molecular Ecology is a branch of biology concerned with the study of using biological tools (such as DNA fingerprinting) to gain a deeper understanding of natural phenomena. This is done to assess the biodiversity of various populations to guarantee they are not endangered (cheetahs and polar bears currently). It can be used to assess whether a new species has emerged, as well as to better track the evolution of different animal families (horses and whales currently).

Bioremediation

Bioremediation is the application of biological systems to the reduction of pollution in the air, water, and land. Plants and microorganisms are the most commonly used biological systems. Microorganism-mediated biodegradation is the most common bioremediation method. Most substances can be broken down by microorganisms to meet their growth and/or energy requirements. Air may or may not be required for certain biodegradation processes. In some circumstances, the same metabolic pathways that organisms employ for development and energy supply are also used to break down pollution compounds. The microbe does not benefit directly in these situations, which is known as co-metabolism. This phenomenon has been exploited by researchers for bioremediation objectives. 

By mineralizing contaminants to carbon dioxide, water, and harmless inorganic salts, complete biodegradation results in detoxification. Incomplete biodegradation might result in breakdown products that are less harmful than the original contaminant. Vinyl chloride, which is more hazardous and carcinogenic than the original molecules, might result from incomplete biodegradation of tri or tetra-chloro-ethylene, for example. When biodegradation occurs naturally, the terms “intrinsic Bioremediation” or “natural attenuation” are frequently employed. However, in many cases, the natural circumstances are insufficient for this to occur due to a lack of sufficient nutrients, oxygen, or compatible microbes. One or more of these conditions can be supplemented to improve such situations. Extra nutrients were spread, for example, to hasten the breakdown of the oil spilled by the super ship Exxon Valdez on 1000 miles of Alaskan shoreline in 1989. In the future, the trend in bioremediation will be to focus on the pace of unaided biodegradation first, and only intervene if there is insufficient activity to remove the contaminant quickly enough to avoid any projected dangers. Hazardous waste that has already damaged the environment can be reduced or removed using bioremediation procedures. End-of-pipe techniques can also be employed to remediate waste streams before they exit manufacturing facilities.

The employment of bacteria (or fungus) to clean up dangerous environmental contaminants is known as bioremediation. The microorganisms essentially convert hazardous trash into less hazardous, easier to dispose of garbage. Plants are also being tested for this purpose in some regions (Sunflowers at Chernobyl removed Cesium and Strontium). The employment of microorganism metabolism to remove contaminants is known as bioremediation. These are almost standard “end-of-pipe” technologies for removing, degrading, or detoxifying pollution from the environment. It is based on the following procedures:

The process of removing the contamination from the host medium is known as removal/separation.

Destruction/degradation: A process that destroys or neutralizes a pollutant chemically or biologically to produce less harmful chemicals.

Containment/immobilization: A method that obstructs or immobilizes the contaminant’s surface and subsurface mobility.

Bioremediation has been utilized in North America to clean up DEW line sites in the arctic and to clean up after oil spills off the coast of Alaska. Currently, this technology can “design” microbes to break down hazardous waste on-site, eliminating the need for transportation and storage.

Biosensors

A biosensor either utilizes a biological entity (such as bacteria) to detect chemical levels or uses chemicals to monitor biological entity levels (i.e. pathogens).

Biosensors are currently used in the following applications:

Biofuels

A bio-fuel is a plant-derived fuel that is considered to be more environmentally friendly than current fuel sources because it emits less CO2.

  • In North America, corn-based ethanol is used in a variety of gasoline.
  • Biodiesel is a type of fuel that is created from leftover cooking oil.

Many biofuel scientists are currently working on a project dubbed “A Journey to Forever,” which aims to develop a self-sustaining biofuel cell that emits no greenhouse gases. Under anaerobic conditions, many different bacterial strains can create a lot of hydrogen. The only waste product from oxidized hydrogen is water, hence this hydrogen can be used as a fuel. This technology is still in its infancy.


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